A One-Step Portal for On-Line Genealogy

Stephen P. Morse


An early version of this article appeared in AVOTAYNU: the International Review of Jewish Genealogy (Spring 2004), and a revised version in the Association of Professional Genealogists Quarterly (September and December 2006). The following is yet another revision of the original article, updated as of February 2011, and published in the Federation of Genealogical Societes Forum (Summer 2011).


In the “old days” genealogical research was done by traveling great distances and then going through dusty archives or using microfilm readers.  But the advent of the World Wide Web has changed that.  Today much of the data useful to genealogists has been put on websites and can be accessed from the comfort of home.


Unfortunately, many of these websites are not easy to use.  And those that are don’t always offer all the versatility that is possible.  For that reason I have created alternate ways of accessing some of these websites.  In addition I have developed some of my own databases and programs to facilitate doing genealogical research.  These are all collected together under what I call the One-Step website.


The name “One Step” was chosen when I developed my first search tool, which allowed for searches through the Ellis Island records.  A search done from the ellisisland.org website involved many steps, whereas my search tool was able to do it all in one step.  Hence I called that tool “Searching the Ellis Island Database in One Step.”  Little did I realize that, by choosing such a name, my website would become branded and I would be forced to use One-Step on all subsequent tools.  I almost called that early tool “Searching the Ellis Island Database with Fewer Tears,” in which case this paper would be about the Fewer Tears website.


In this paper I’ll present an overview of what the One-Step website has to offer and, in doing so, will introduce other resources that are available on the web.





I’m often asked why I created the One-Step tools when the ability to search the data already exists on other websites.  I can best answer that with an example.  Suppose we wanted to find the Ellis Island record for Irving Berlin.  If Irving were a member of our family, we would have information about him from family folklore that would help in our search.   Since he’s not a member of our family, we’ll simulate our family folklore from information found on the Internet.  Here are some articles about him:



From these we learn that his original given name was Israel and that his original surname was either Baline, Berlin, or Bailin.  We also learn that he was born in 1888 and that he came to the U.S. in 1893 with his father Moses and his mother whose name was either Leah or Lena.  That’s enough for a start.


We can now go to the Ellis Island website at ellisisland.org and enter the information.  We are presented with a form that simply asks for first and last name so we enter “Israel Bailin” and get the following response:



The Ellis Island website reports that no records were found.  However the bottom line tells us that there are additional tools that might be helpful.  If we click on that line, we  are presented not with tools provided by the Ellis Island website but with the One-Step tools!


Using the One-Step tools we can enter the information that we know about Irving in one step – specifically first name Israel, last name sounds like Bailin, born in 1888, and arrived in 1893.  That will get us to a manifest containing the following entries:



There’s no doubt that this is the correct person.  And the name on the manifest is Beilin, not Bailin, which is why we couldn’t find his record when searching on the Ellis Island website directly.  Also notice that his mother’s name, which was given as Lena or Leah on different websites, is written on the manifest as Leo!


Now I can answer the question as to why I created the One-Step tools: they provide more powerful interfaces for searching existing databases. 


The One-Step website is broken down into sixteen sections as shown below.  The following numbered sections of this paper will mirror the sections of the website.




1. Ellis Island Search Forms and Ship Arrivals


One of the most valuable websites for genealogists is the Ellis Island database, which went online in April of 2001.  It includes passenger records of 25 million immigrants who came to the United States between 1892 and 1924.  This section deals with the Ellis Island database and various ways of searching for passengers in it.





There are three One-Step forms for searching for passengers in the Ellis Island database.  They are the so-called White Form, Gold Form, and All-New-York-Passengers form.  The White Form searches the data on ellisisland.org using my search form but their search engine.  That data covers all passenger arrivals from 1892 to 1924.  Since the White Form is my own search form, it is able to offer some search options not available on the ellisisland.org search form.  The Gold Form searches the same data but uses my own search engine.  This allows me to offer many search features not available in the ellisisland.org search engine.  The All-New-York-Passengers form searches the data on ancestry.com using my search form.  Their data covers more than just the Ellis Island arrivals – it covers all arrivals to the Port of New York from 1820 to 1957. 


Ancestry.com is a commercial website and requires a subscription.  But you can access it for free from almost any public library by using the library’s group subscription.  And my All-New-York-Passengers Form that accesses ancestry.com can be used from the library as well.  I should mention that there is never a fee for using the One-Step website and there is no registration required either.  And I don’t ask for your email address so I can’t even send you spam email.


Here is an example involving Albert Einstein – it uses all three search forms to illustrate the differences between them.



Albert Einstein


Suppose we wanted to find Albert Einstein’s ship record.  We don’t know his year of arrival or his age, but we do recall that he came here to escape from Nazi Germany.  That would suggest that he came sometime in the 1930’s.


Using the White Form, we enter his name and nothing more and submit the request.



We get the following results:



The one from Berlin seems the most promising so let’s bring up his manifest



From this we see that he is a professor and that’s a good sign.  Also this person is Swiss and that too looks promising.  But it does say that he arrived in 1921 and that’s too early.  It also says he is traveling with his wife, Elsa, who is two years older.


We’ll need some additional information about the well-known Einstein before we can draw any conclusions about whether this is the correct ship record.  If we do a google search for biographical information on Albert Einstein, we find the following:



Below are some of the highlights of this chronology.  For simplicity I removed a lot of unnecessary items such as those dealing with something called relativity (I checked and was disappointed to discover that it had nothing at all to do with his relatives).



Date of birth looks good and matches the record that we found.



More confirmation.  That’s good.



That’s bad.  The ship record says his wife’s name is Elsa



Ok, this is looking promising and it’s good news (bad news for Mileva but good news for us).



Bingo.  That’s the ship record that we found.  And apparently it was the first of several of his visits to the U.S.



And in 1933 he came to live permanently in the U.S.  This confirms that we found the correct record.


I’ve gone through these steps in detail because this is exactly the process that you’ll be going through when you find ship records of family members and want to confirm that you’ve found the correct record.  You’ll do so by piecing together other information that you know about your family member and seeing how well it matches what is on the ship record.


Now let’s do that same search using the Gold Form.  The Gold Form allows us to search on a traveling companion, so we can enter Elsa.  This is a powerful search option, and will eliminate the three incorrect Albert Einsteins that we obtained with the White Form.  Eliminating three false hits out of four might not sound like much, but it could have been 399 out of 400.  The Gold Form is the only immigration form that I know of that allows searches on traveling companion.



Now we get the following match:



Although the Albert Einstein Chronology above tells us that he settled in the United States in 1933, neither the search on the White Form nor the search on the Gold Form found that arrival.  That’s because they both access the data that is on ellisisland.org, and that data ends in 1924.  So now let’s search for Einstein using the All-New-York-Passengers Form, which accesses data that goes up to 1957.  Although we can’t enter Elsa on this form, we now know Albert’s year of birth so we will use that information to narrow the search.



And when we do the search we get the following results.



There’s the 1921 arrival that we’ve seen and the 1933 arrival that we were hoping to find.  There’s also a 1930 arrival, and further research shows that he had spent a year teaching at Stanford from 1930 to 1932.


Now that we’ve seen how to use all three forms, let me make a suggestion as to when to use which one.  If the passenger you are seeking arrived before 1892 or after 1924, you must use the All-New-York-Passengers Form.  If the passenger arrived in the 1892 to 1924 range, the Gold Form is the preferred form.  If you are unable to find the passenger using the Gold Form and you would like to get a different perspective, give the White Form a try.



Fiorello LaGuardia


Since the Gold Form is the preferred form, let’s use it to find Fiorello LaGuardia, the Jewish-Italian mayor of New York.  LaGuardia was born in the US, but he traveled back and forth several times in his official capacity as a congressman before becoming mayor.  So perhaps we can find the records of some of those crossings.


Although we probably know how to spell Fiorello, we can’t assume that the person writing the manifest did.  So we’ll just enter an initial for the first name.



This gives the following hits:



The only entries that are obviously Fiorello are on lines 2 and 3.  Note that Fiorello is spelled incorrectly on line 3, so had we entered the entire first name we would not have found him.  To verify that these entries are the ones we want, we’ll pull up the ship’s manifest.  For the entry on line 2 we obtain



He was traveling in good company, together with a Rothschild.  And from this record we learn that Fiorello’s date of birth is December 11th, 1882.  From the entry on line 3 we get the following:



Same date of birth so it’s obviously the same person.  And here we find the address that he’s going to – 15 Williams Street in New York.


Now it’s time to do a google search on the famous Fiorello LaGuardia to determine if we’ve found the right ship records.  On one website we find the following:



The year of birth matches, convincing us that this is the right person.  And as a bonus we just learned the names of  Fiorello’s parents – Achille and Irene.


As good genealogists, we should always be looking for clues that tie things together.  And if we study the above records carefully we’ll find one such clue.  Look back on the list of eight matches that we found, and notice that there is a Frans LaGuardia who resides at 15 Williams Street in New York.  The same address appeared in one of Fiorello’s records.  Could Frans be Fiorello?  Not likely because Frans was 52 in 1913, meaning he was born around 1860.  But Frans has to be a family member since the addresses match.


If we pull up Frans’s ship record, we’ll find the following:



Yes, I suppose that first name could be Frans.  But it could be any number of other things as well.  In fact, it could even be his mother Irene.  We’ll need to learn more about Fiorello’s parents if we are to find out who Frans really is.


Fiorello’s father Achille was famous in his own right as a bandleader.  Searching for Achille LaGuardia gives the following information:



From this we learn that Fiorello’s mother, Irene, was born in 1859.  So the ages match and she’s the “Frans” whose record we accidentally found.  Purely by luck we are able to add another record to the genealogy scrapbook for Fiorello LaGuardia.



Ship Lists and Missing Manifests


In the above examples we were able to go from the name found in the Ellis Island database directly to the person’s ship record by simply clicking on a link.  But it’s not always that easy.  There are many instances where the images are online at ellisisland.org but the links to them are either missing or incorrect.  Let’s demonstrate that by trying to find Josef Bulkorstein.  No, Bulkorstein had nothing to do with relativity and he was never a mayor; he’s not famous for anything (as far as I know) other than having a mis-linked manifest image.


If we search for Bulkorstein using either the Gold Form or the White Form, we get the following:



Just because it says that there is “No Image Available”, that doesn’t mean that it’s so.  The record shows that he arrived on June 26, 1893 from Rotterdam.  Sometimes the name of the ship is given, but in this case it isn’t.  And although we don’t know which manifest page (frame) he’s on, we do know that wherever he is, he’s on line 60.


There are several tools on the One-Step Website called Ship-Lists tools.  They allow us to search not for passenger names but rather for ship arrivals.  We can now go to the One-Step Ellis Island Ship-Lists tool and enter the information that we have.



When we do a search, we are presented with



From this we learn that the ship was the Veendam and its manifest is on microfilm roll 612 starting at frame 614.  Furthermore if we click on the link for the Veendam, we will get to another One-Step tool (the Ellis Island Manifest tool) that provides direct access to manifests by roll and frame number.  This tool displays the first frame of the Veendam’s manifests and allows us to step through the manifests of that ship arrival, frame-by-frame.



We start stepping from frame 614, looking for a line 60.  On frame 617 we find what we are looking for.



This brings up an important concept that I call the One-Step Immigration Triangle.  It denotes a trio of One-Step tools that work together to facilitate searching for immigration records.  These three tools are:


Searching by Passenger Name

   (the Ellis Island White Form, Gold Form, and All-New-York-Passengers form)

Searching by Ship Arrival (the Ellis Island Ship-Lists tool)

Accessing Manifests directly by roll and frame (the Ellis Island Manifests tool)




Morton Allan Ship Directory


The Morton Allan directory contains ships that sailed from Northern Europe, and as such duplicates some of the information found with the One-Step Ship-Lists tool.  Anthony Cimorelli has done a nice job of making the data from that directory available online, and there is a One-Step tool that links to Cimorelli’s website and provides additional searching abilities.  The information found in this manner can be used as a cross-check with the information found with the One-Step Ship-Lists tool.



Ship Pictures


Once we’ve found our relatives’ ship records, it’s nice to have pictures of the ships that brought them across.  There are many websites that contain such pictures, and I have combined those that I could find into a One-Step Ship-Pictures tool.


Let’s get a picture of the ship named Carpathia.  That ship is well known, and not because it was the ship that rescued the survivors of the Titanic in 1912.  More important is what it did the following year: it brought my grandmother to the United States.



We can select from any of about a dozen possible websites to get the pictures.  For example, had we selected KinshipsPrints, we would have gotten the following:




2. Castle Garden (and earlier) Search Forms and Ship Arrivals


The Ellis Island processing center was not always there, and prior to it there were other facilities in New York for processing immigrants.  Here is a synopsis of what happened when.


prior to 1820: No record keeping was required

starting in 1820: All passengers’ names were recorded on the ship’s passenger lists

prior to 1855: No processing, passengers just walked off the ship

1855 to 1890: Castle Garden

1890 to 1891: Barge Office

1892 to 1897: Ellis Island

1897 to 1900: Barge Office (Ellis Island closed due to fire)

1900 to 1924: Ellis Island

1924 to 1954: Ellis Island (special cases only)


Starting in 1820, each ship recorded all passengers’ names.  However, prior to 1855 passengers were not processed upon their arrival and simply walked off the ship.  In 1855 New York State began processing the immigrants and did so at a facility in lower Manhattan known as Castle Garden.  The Federal Government took over in 1890 but they didn’t have a facility ready yet, so they used the Barge Office while Ellis Island was being built.  From 1892 to 1924 the passengers were processed at Ellis Island, except for a three-year period while the island was unusable due to a fire.  After 1924 passengers were processed in their home country (as a result of the new quota laws) so there was no longer a need for extensive processing upon their arrival.


Records from the above periods have been divided into three groups and put online as the so-called Castle Garden years (1855 to 1891), the Ellis Island years (1892 to 1924), and the All-New-York years (1820-1957).  The preceding section showed how to access the records in the Ellis Island years and the All-New-York years.  This section deals with the Castle-Garden years and the All-New-York years.


There are two different on-line resources for the Castle Garden years.  One is through ancestry.com as already seen (covering the Castle Garden years and much more) and the other through castlegarden.org.  The former requires a subscription whereas the latter is free.  The castlegarden.org website does not have the manifest images online whereas ancestry.com does.  There are many records missing from castlegarden.org, and there are other records on castlegarden.org that don’t belong there (they are for other ports).


There is a pair of One-Step tools to search for Castle Garden passengers at castlegarden.org.  And there is a trio of One-Step tools (the One-Step Immigration Triangle) for searching them at ancestry.com.


As an example, let’s search for Nikola Tesla’s Castle Garden record.  Tesla was the father of alternating current and he worked with Thomas Edison for a while, but they were incompatible (Edison was DC and Tesla was AC) and eventually had a falling out.


Here is a passage describing Tesla’s arrival at Castle Garden.  As you can see, he was not your typical arriving immigrant.




Below is Tesla’s Castle Garden ship record (bottom line).  This record is contained in the database that is on ancestry.com; it is not in the one that is on castlegarden.org.






3. Other Ports of Immigration


Although a vast majority of the immigrants arrived through the Port of New York, many entered through other ports.  Here is a list of some other popular ports during the peak immigration years, and the years for which the records are online:


Baltimore 1820 to 1948

Boston 1820 to 1943

Galveston 1844 to 1954

New Orleans 1820 to 1945

Philadelphia 1800 to 1945

San Francisco 1893 to 1953


There is a trio of One-Step Immigration-Triangle tools for searching for records from each of the above ports.


Furthermore there is a One-Step tool for searching the list of passengers departing from Hamburg, as well as some One-Step tools for searching the Canadian border-crossing records.



4. U.S. Census and Soundex


Two things genealogists always want to know is how their ancestors got to this country and what they did while they were here.  The previous sections of the One-Step website dealt with how they got here.  The census gives a snapshot of what they did while they were here.


The United States Census is conducted every ten years.  The census records are sealed for 72 years for privacy reasons.  In April 2002 the 1930 census was unsealed, making it the most recent census available.


This section presents various ways of using the Internet to find people in the different census years.  It also shows what tools will be available for the 1940 census.





The easiest way to find a person in a census is to search by name.  The National Archives has some name indexes but they are not complete and they are not available online.  There are commercial websites that have complete name indexes for the various census years, but they require a paid subscription.  If you have such a subscription, you can do a name search from the One-Step website and have access to more powerful search features than are available at the commercial website directly.


If you don’t have access to a name index, or if the person you want cannot be found in the name index, the next best thing is to search by address.  Unfortunately the census is not organized by address – it is organized by Enumeration Districts (EDs).  Converting an address to an ED is a difficult process.  The One-Step website offers various tools to make this easier.



Census ED Finder and Census Rolls


Let’s start by doing a search in the 1930 census using the address rather than the name.  For example, let’s find the 1930 census record for 138 Eagle Street in Albany, New York.  That happens to be the governor’s mansion.


We start by entering the state, city, and then street into the One-Step 1930 Census ED Finder.  The ED Finder will then show us all the EDs that the street passes through.  It will also provide us with a mapping facility from which we can determine the cross streets.  In our example, those streets are Park Avenue and South Swan Street.  As we enter each cross street, the number of EDs narrows, and after we have entered both cross streets we are left with a single ED, namely 1-66.



After we’ve found the ED, we need to find the census roll that contains that ED so that we can view it.  This can be done with the One-Step Census-Images tool.




Once the New York 1-66 ED is entered, the Census-Images tool shows that the census roll we want is T626_1403 at the National Archives or 2341138 at the Family History Library (Mormon Church).  Furthermore, if we have a paid subscription to ancestry.com, which has the census images online, the One-Step Census-Images tool will link us directly to the census images for that ED.  We would then step through those images until we come to Eagle Street, and then continue to house number 138.  The image we’ll find is shown below.



There at number 138 Eagle is the Honorable Franklin Roosevelt and his wife Anna E (I’ll bet you thought that her name was Eleanor) along with his children James, Elliot, Frank Jr., and John, and his secretary.


Franklin’s occupation is listed as “Governor” and his industry is listed as “Capitol”.  That might sound like a strange industry, but think about what the census taker might have asked.  “What do you do and where do you do it?”  “Well, I’m the governor and I do it in the capitol.”


On the same page is the next house on Eagle Street, namely number 150.  And here we find the families of truck driver Anthony Garufi and laborer Vincenzo Nastasi.  These census pages make no class distinctions.



1930 Census Occupation Codes


If we look at Franklin Roosevelt’s census record, we will see a code following his occupation, namely 9693.  These codes were added for statistical purposes after the census was taken, and provide no additional information.  However they might be helpful if the occupation is too illegible to be read.


There is a One-Step tool that helps decipher these codes.  As shown below, the code 9693 designates “Officials and inspectors, United States”.




1920/1930 ED Converter


The One-Step ED Finder described above provides direct address-to-ED conversion for 1900, 1910, 1930, and 1940.  Although there is no equivalent 1920 ED Finder, there is a converter that maps 1930 EDs to the corresponding 1920 EDs, and vice versa.  Using the converter we can find, for example, the 1920 ED for 138 Eagle since we have already determined that the 1930 ED is 1-66.



This shows us that parts of the 1930 ED were found in three 1920 EDs, namely 74, 76, and 77.  We can now use the One-Step Census-Images tool that interfaces with ancestry.com and step through those EDs looking for 138 Eagle Street.  If we did that, we would find 138 Eagle in ED 76, and residing there we would find Governor Alfred E. Smith.



1930/1940 ED Converter


The 1940 census won’t be available for viewing until April 1, 2012.  At that time there will be no name index, although the commercial websites will undoubtedly begin working on such an index as soon as the census opens.  So the only way to access the census initially will be by address, and that makes an address-to-ED facility a necessity.


The One-Step website contains both a 1940 ED Finder and a 1930/1940 ED Converter.  On opening day they will probably be the only shows in town.



Census Search by Name


When name indexes are available, they are the easiest way to search the census.  Let’s go through an example using the One-Step tool that links to the name index on a commercial website, namely ancestry.com.  Ancestry.com has complete name indexes for all the available census years – 1790 to 1930.


Suppose we wanted to find Herbert Hoover, who was living in Washington D.C. in 1930.  If we enter that information on the One-Step form and do a search, we’ll get the following results:



There were in fact two Herbert Hoovers living in Washington in 1930.  One was a head of household and the other was a prisoner!  If you think about it, there’s not that much of a difference between them – one lives in a big “White-House”, the other in a white “Big-House”, and both houses are surrounded by high-security perimeter fences.


But we’ll choose the head of household.  If we click on him, we’ll get the record shown below.  There’s Herbert, his wife and son, along with a housekeeper, three cooks, three maids, and a steward.  His occupation is President and his industry is United States (“What do you do and where do you do it?”).  The address is listed simply as White House.  No other families are listed on this page.  The truck driver and the laborer will have to go on the next page.



As another example, let’s find John D Rockefeller in Manhattan in 1910.  We enter that information on the One-Step form and get the following results:




This time we get three hits, but now all three of them are relevant.  One is John Sr., one John Jr., and the last is John III.  Let’s look at the records.




There’s John Sr. and his wife Laura.  John’s occupation is President and his industry is Oil Company.  Times must have been tough because his wife is working as a schoolteacher.  His wife’s sister is living with them and she’s also working in an attempt to make ends meet.  The reason money was tight is obvious – they had ten servants that they had to support.


You might not recognize the name of John’s neighbor, 55-year-old Florence Twombly.  She was the granddaughter of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt, renowned as the richest man in America at that time.  Although not shown in the report above for lack of space, Florence had 21 servants, and she didn’t have to work to support them!


Next take a look at the record for John Jr.



There’s John Jr., his wife and daughter both named Abby, and his sons John III and Nelson.  The future governor of New York State was 22 months old at the time.  John Jr. listed his occupation as well as his industry as Capitalist.



Changed Street Names


When using the One-Step ED Finder we often have to determine the cross streets for our particular address.  If street names and house numbers haven’t changed since the census year, we can easily find the cross streets using one of the mapping websites.  But if the street names have changed, we would need to know the correspondence between old and new names.  And if the house numbers have changed, things are even more complicated.


The One-Step website contains a compendium of street-name changes and house-number changes for over 200 U.S. cities.  The information for some cities already existed on the web, and in that case the One-Step entry for that city is simply a link to that other website.  In other cases the information was transcribed from tables, books, or maps and placed on the One-Step website.





The One-Step website includes a soundex calculator. 


Soundex is a fundamental component of search-by-name.  It is an encoding of names whereby names that sound the same are given the same encoding.  That enables us to find names for which we didn’t know the exact spelling by searching for matches on the soundex code.


Soundex searches on the web will usually not require us to compute the code ourselves, because the website can do the computation for us without our even being aware that soundex is being used.  However I’ve come across several websites that actually ask the user to enter the soundex code for the name being searched on.  For such websites the One-Step soundex calculator will be helpful.


If we are doing a manual soundex search, such as through microfilm rolls, we will be required to first compute the soundex code for the name we want.  Here too the soundex calculator is useful.


There are two soundex systems of interest.  One is the American Soundex that is used for U.S. census records as well as other holdings at the National Archives.  The other is the Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex (DM) that was designed for use with the Eastern European names that are prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews.  For that reason DM soundex is used on all the databases found on the jewishgen.org website.


As an example, let’s pick a name that I as a Californian always have trouble spelling – namely Schwarzenegger.  If we enter that on the One-Step soundex calculator we’ll obtain the following results:



American Soundex: S625

DM Soundex: 474659 479465


Suppose we misspell the name as Sh instead of Sch.  In this case the soundex codes are the same as before.



American Soundex: S625

DM Soundex: 474659 479465


That means that a soundex search based on either soundex method would give a match, even in the face of this misspelling.  Next suppose that we misspell it with ts instead of z.




American Soundex: S632

DM Soundex: 479465


The American code has changed, so a soundex search based on American Soundex would fail to find a match.  But one based on DM Soundex would still be able to find a match because the DM code for this misspelling matches one of the two DM codes for the correct spelling.


Frankly I think Gray Davis was much easier to spell.



5. Canadian and British Census


There are several websites that host Canadian and British census data.  Below are some that I’ve found and created One-Step tools for.




1881 Canada (Library and Archives Canada)

1901 Canada (automatedgenealogy.com)

1901 British (1901censusonline.com)


Subscription (ancestry.com):


1901 Canada

1906 Canada

1911 Canada


1841 British

1851 British

1861 British

1871 British

1881 British

1891 British

1901 British



6. New York Census


New York State conducted its own census many times, usually midway between two federal censuses.  The best preserved are the 1905, 1915, and 1925 censuses.  These are of great value to genealogists because of the large influx of immigrants during those years, and because so many of those immigrants settled in New York even if only for a brief period.


A name index exists for the 1905 New York census, but not for 1915 and 1925.  And like the federal census, searching by address requires first determining the district in which that address is located.  The New York equivalent of the Enumeration District is the Assembly District / Election District.  So we need a means of converting addresses to AD/EDs.


Although the census was statewide, the biggest problems are in New York City because that’s where most of the people resided and where most of the AD/EDs were.  The One-Step website contains an AD/ED finder for each of the five boroughs of New York City in each of these three census years.  The One-Step website also has a tool for searching the 1905 census by name.



7. Births, Deaths, and other Vital Records


Vital records (birth, marriage, death) and naturalization records are another very important resource for genealogists.  For privacy reasons, you can’t simply fetch a copy of anyone’s birth certificate.  But there is a surprisingly vast amount of this supposed private information available online.





This is one of the unusual genealogical finds on the Internet – the ability to find out almost anyone’s birth date.  There are several websites that host such data, notably birthdatabase.com, privateeye.com, zabasearch.com, ancestry.com, and intelius.com.  For each of these there is an associated One-Step forms that allows you to search the same data but in ways not provided by the host website.


For illustrative purposes, I’ve pretended to add a fictional person to one of the databases.  That person is Donald Duck, born June 9, 1934, and currently residing in Disneyland California.  Below is the result of a search for Donald done on the birthdatabase.com website directly.



I’ve added only one fictional name – all the others are real Donald Ducks!


Since our Donald lives in Disneyland, it would have been nice to narrow the search using that information.  By doing so, we would have fewer results to look through to find our Donald.  Unfortunately there is no way to enter the place of residence on birthdatabase.com’s search form.  But there is on the associated One-Step form, and by doing so we get only one result as shown below:



In addition to place of residence, the One-Step form also allows us to search on middle initial and on range of birth dates.  None of these values can be specified when searching on the birthdatabase.com website directly.


To show that we can use these tools to find birthdays for real people, let’s try for George Bush.  Since there are probably many people having that name (I know of at least two), let’s narrow it down by zip code and middle initial.  If we specify zip code starting with 7 for Texas (see the One-Step Zip-Code Utility in the next section) and middle initial of W, we get the eight hits shown below.  If we use middle initial of H instead, we get another three.




The father-and-son presidents are the circled entries.


As a final example, let’s show how easy it is to use these birthday searches to find married women without knowing their married names.  Suppose we were trying to locate a classmate named Hillary whom we recall was born on October 26, 1947.  Entering just that information and no last name, we obtain the following results:



So that’s whom she married!


[The underlying website has since purged the names of all well-known people from their database so the above record can no longer be found.  But the relatives we are interested in will most-likely still be there.]



Social Security Death Records


The Social Security Administration maintains a database of deceased social security recipients and updates it monthly.  The database is not complete – for strange technical reasons (which I’ve never understood) a small percentage of people never make it into the database.  And the database has a high percentage of missing names from the 1950’s and very few names prior to that.  But in spite of all this, this database is very valuable for genealogical research.


The database can be purchased on CDs from the Social Security Administration.  Or it can be accessed online from half a dozen primary websites, and a large number of secondary websites that display the results from the primary ones.  The primary websites, in alphabetical order, are ancestry.com, familysearch.com, familytreelegends.com, genealogy.com, genealogybank.com newenglandancestors.com, rootsweb.com, and worldvitalrecords.com.


Each of the primary websites differs slightly in the parameters that it is capable of searching on.  For example, ancestry.com allows for searches on middle initial whereas genealogy.com does not.  For this reason it is useful to be able to switch between the different primary websites based on the information you have.


There is a One-Step tool that ties in to all of the primary websites.  You enter the information you want to search on, and also select the primary website that you want to search.  You can then repeat the same search using a different primary website if you like.


Let’s try to get the death record for Richard M. Nixon.  We enter the name on the One-Step website and tell it to search the ancestry.com database.  The results we obtain are show below, with the former president being the last one.




New York Naturalization Records


Naturalization records are of course another valuable resource for genealogists.  There is no central online repository for such records but rather there are various local databases.  The New York City records are of particular interest because of the large number of immigrants settling in New York.


The Jewish Genealogical Society of New York has made the Brooklyn Naturalization Records for the early years of the 20th century available online, and the Italian Genealogical Group has done the same for much of the Greater New York area.  However searches performed from these websites involve a lot of navigating between pages.  Furthermore, the soundex searches on these websites originally required the user to do his own soundex calculations; they have since been updated using code from the One-Step website.


The One-Step naturalization tool allows you to search in any of these databases using the same search form.  As an example, let’s consider Colin Powell.  He grew up in the Bronx so he or his family are probably in the database.   From a google search on Colin Powell we learn the following:



From this we know that Colin was born in the United States, but his parents, Luther Theophilus and Maud Ariel were immigrants.  From the One-Step form we can search the Southern District (Manhattan/Bronx) naturalizations records for Powell and come up with:



There are his parents on the first and last lines.



New York Incarceration Records


If you are fortunate enough to have relatives who have spent time in some of New York State’s finer institutions (Sing Sing, Elmira, Attica, …), you can obtain more information about them from this One-Step form.  For example, we can search on David Berkowitz (a.k.a., Son of Sam) and obtain his entire rap sheet.




Locating Couples


Have you ever tried to do a search for Uncle John Doe and discovered that it was a very popular name?  Or how about his wife, Aunt Jane Doe?  Although there might be too many John Does and Jane Does to make such searches practical, there probably aren’t too many couples named John and Jane Doe.


With this One-Step tool we can find all the John and Jane Does who are living together.  It will search through the intelius.com database for John Doe, discard all those who are not living with Jane Doe, and display the others.  Here is the result.




Relationship Calculator


Many genealogists, even experienced ones, sometimes get confused when it comes to calculating family relationships.  This One-Step tool simplifies all that.  You simply press the buttons shown below to build up complex relationships, and the name of that relationship will appear in the box at the bottom.




If you think you know how to compute relationships and don’t need such a calculator, take a look at the following tree.  This is an actual example from my wife’s family – only the names have been changed to protect the incestuous.  Abe, by some other name, was my wife’s great grandfather.



How many of you were able to figure out that Dave and Debbie were first cousins, second cousins, and first cousins once removed?


Oh, my wife wants me to mention that she is the daughter of Carl’s brother, so her blood is untainted.



Where’s Grandpa


All too often I get unsolicited email from total strangers asking me to find their great grandfather for them.  And for free no less!  So I put up the following tongue-in-cheek One-Step page that I can refer them to.




8. Calendar, Sunrise/Sunset, and Maps


This section of the One-Step website is one that my wife has given me some flack about because it has nothing to do with genealogy.  My reply is that the One-Step website never mentions the word genealogy (although most of the tools on it are genealogy-related) but rather deals with whatever piques my interest at the moment.  I’m interested in physics, so don’t be surprised if one day you see a form for “Solving Maxwell’s Equations in One Step”.


However, even the tools in this section have some relevance to genealogists.



Calendar Conversions


The One-Step site contains tools that perform date conversions for several calendars – specifically the Jewish calendar, the Muslim calendar, the French Revolutionary calendar, and the Mayan calendar.  Each of these calendars has its own peculiarities.  The Jewish calendar is both solar and lunar, the Muslim calendar is lunar only with the years drifting through the seasons, the French Revolutionary calendar is decimalization run amok, and the Mayan calendar has its built-in prophecy of doom in the year 2012 (actually that’s a fallacy – the calendar really ends on Columbus day in the year 4772).


It’s easy to see the usefulness of these calendar tools to genealogists.  Many old vital records give dates according to some local calendar.  Also tombstones frequently give the date of death according to the local calendar.


There are other calendar conversion programs on the web today, but one advantage of the One-Step version is that it really does the conversion in one step.  You select the date in one calendar, and while you are doing so the converted date is being displayed in the other.  There is no additional step of having to hit a “compute” button.


An advantage of the Jewish calendar converter in particular is that it displays the Jewish date in Hebrew as well as in English.  The Hebrew is an encoding of the numerals of the date into Hebrew letters, much like Roman Numerals converts numeric information into Latin letters.  And the Hebrew encoding is the same encoding that you would find on a tombstone.  So when you locate the grave of your distant relative that you know very little about, you can now decipher the cryptic Hebrew letters on his tombstone and determine his date of death.


Here is what the One-Step Jewish calendar converter looks like.




Sunrise, Sunset


Another calculation that’s intrigued me is that of sunrise and sunset.  This One-Step tool lets you select a city from a list of several hundred worldwide, and also select a date.  It in turn will display the time of sunrise and sunset at that location for that date.  And if the city you want is not on the list, you can enter its latitude and longitude instead.  You can even find the exact time of sunset at your home by entering the latitude and longitude of your particular address (see the One-Step Latitude/Longitude tool further down in this section).






The One-Step Map tool presents you with a road map, contour map, or aerial photo of practically any place on Earth.  Like the One-Step sunrise/sunset tool, you can select the location from a large list of cities, or you can enter its coordinates (latitude and longitude).



Zip Code Map


The One-Step Zip Code tool lets you obtain the city for any U.S. zip code or the zip code for any U.S. address.  Furthermore it displays a map showing which leading zip code digit corresponds to which part of the country as well as a table showing where each three-digit zip code is located.




The leading-digit map shown above is particularly useful for the One-Step birthday tool.  Recall that for the birthday example we wanted to find all the George Bushes from Texas, and to do that we needed to know the zip code prefix for Texas.


There is also a similar One-Step tool for Canadian Postal Codes



Latitude, Longitude, and Altitude


The One-Step Latitude/Longitude tool lets you obtain the latitude and longitude (and even the altitude) of a house address and vice versa.  This is referred to as geocoding.  Below is an example showing that the tool is not restricted to U.S. addresses.



Once you know the latitude and longitude of your house, you can go to the One-Step Sunrise/Sunset tool above and obtain the time that the sun will set over your house.


You can also go the other way (reverse geocoding) and obtain the address of a specified latitude and longitude.



OK, we didn’t get precisely the address we started with, but we got very close.



9. Dealing with Characters in Foreign Alphabets


One problem that genealogists sometimes face is having to deal with source documents written not only in foreign languages but in alphabets that they do not know.  This section of the One-Step website provides tools to make working with these alphabets a little less painful.  The specific alphabets covered are Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, and Japanese (Hiragana as well as Katakana).  Also covered are all the accentuated characters in the various Latin-based alphabets.



Transliteration Tools


A genealogist might have to sound out names written in a foreign alphabet on vital records or tombstones so that he can match it to the name he knows, which is written in Latin letters.  And the genealogist might not be familiar with the alphabet or might have only a rudimentary knowledge of it.  So a tool for transliterating names from one alphabet to another is needed.


The One-Step website provides the following transliteration tools:


Arabic to Latin

Latin to Arabic

Cyrillic to Latin

Latin to Cyrillic

Greek to Latin

Latin to Greek

Hebrew to Latin

Latin to Hebrew

Hiragana to Latin

Latin to Hiragana

Katakana to Latin

Latin to Katakana


In addition, the shape of the letters in some of the alphabets might appear different in different contexts.  For example, cursive Hebrew and printed Hebrew use the same alphabet, but the appearance of the letters in the two cases bears little resemblance.  So a handwritten Hebrew birth record (cursive alphabet) and a typed Hebrew birth record (printed alphabet) would look completely different.  The same is true for Cyrillic.  The One-Step website contains the following conversion tools to alleviate this situation:


cursive to printed Cyrillic

printed to cursive Cyrillic

cursive to printed Hebrew

printed to cursive Hebrew



Israeli Phone Directory


The transliteration tools mentioned above are general and can be used for many different applications.  But some applications are so useful that customized One-Step transliteration tools have been developed for them.  One example is the Israeli telephone directory.


As a genealogist, you can appreciate the usefulness of having phone directories for various parts of the world.  Such directories allow you to locate and even contact other families having surnames of interest to you.  And the Israeli phone directory, in particular, would be very useful to Jewish genealogists because it’s possible that some branches of their family would have settled there.


The Israeli phone company, Bezeq, has a website at www.b144.co.il that lets you do searches in the Israeli phone directory.  However their website is entirely in Hebrew, making it daunting for a person not familiar with Hebrew to use.  Let’s go through an example doing a lookup on the Bezeq website directly, and then doing it with a One-Step transliteration tool that was customized for the Bezeq website.


The portion of the Bezeq website on which you would enter the person’s name and address is shown below.



Suppose you are interested in finding people named Weinstein.  You type that in Hebrew letters into the family-name field (how you type the Hebrew letters without having a Hebrew keyboard is another story).  Of course you wouldn’t know which field to type it into if you don’t read Hebrew.  There’s only one button on this form, so assume it is the search button and click on it.


After your request is submitted, you will see several results displayed on your screen.  One such result is:



If you can recognize Hebrew letters, you can sound out the listing and realize what it says.  For example, the top line reads Yehudah Weinstein.  The letters on the bottom line sound out “telephone” (obviously it’s the same word in Hebrew as in English), so the numbers on that line are Yehudah’s phone number.  And the middle line is his address in Tel Aviv.


Now let’s try the same exercise using the One-Step tool.  The form that you need to fill out is shown below.



Notice that there is a field on top into which you can type the name Weinstein in Latin letters.  Below that is a large box with several possibilities for how it would look in Hebrew.  You select one of them and copy-and-paste it into the last-name field further down.  And at the bottom is a button that is clearly labeled SEARCH.


After you submit the request, one of the results you will receive will be the following:



Now you can read the name on the top line without knowing the Hebrew letters.  Of course it’s impossible to obtain a perfect transliteration, and the name Yehudah Weinstein has become Yhodh Vinshtien.  That’s probably not what you expected, but it is certainly understandable.  Furthermore, the original Hebrew form of the name still appears so you can refer back to that if there is any question about the transliteration.


And the city name, Tel Aviv on the address line and the word “telephone” on the bottom line are now very easy to read.



Special Characters in Latin-Based Alphabets


Even Latin-based alphabets can sometimes present problems because they might contain characters that are not in the set of Latin letters used in English.  Some examples are the French accent acute (é), the Spanish tilde (ñ), the German eszett or double-S (ß), and the Polish slashed L (ł).  This One-Step tool presents a virtual keyboard that let’s you type all such characters, which you can then copy-and-paste into other applications.  This enables you to use search applications that require names to be spelled exactly as they appear in the database.



10. Holocaust and Eastern Europe


There are several One-Step tools that are useful for accessing databases having to do with the Holocaust period.  Some of the underlying websites that hosts the data are in Polish or Russian, so the One-Step tools present an English front end for interacting with those websites.


One tool in this section searches the Dachau concentration camp records.  These records do not come from some other website but rather reside on the One-Step website itself.


There is also a detailed page in this section of the One-Step website for the areas of Bereza and Antopol in Belarus.  These are my ancestral villages.  If your roots are not from that region, then this page will be of little value to you.  But if you do have an interest in this region, you’ll find a wealth of genealogical information about the towns, including English translations of the towns’ memorial books.



11. Genetic Genealogy


In recent years DNA has been used for determining whether or not individual people are related to each other.  This is not a substitute for finding a paper trail, but it can help in determining whether or not to look for such a trail.


This section of the One-Step website has several tools that are useful for interpreting DNA results.   But the most important item in this section is a link to a paper that I wrote titled “From DNA to Genetic Genealogy: Everything you wanted to know but were afraid to ask.”  The paper was published in the Association of Professional Genealogists Quarterly (March 2009), and explains this new science in an understandable manner.



12. Creating your own Search Forms, Search Engines, and Databases


This section of the One-Step website is not for the ordinary genealogist.  It does not contain any lists nor will it help you search any lists to find your grandfather.  Rather it is for persons or organizations that have a collection of data that they would like to share with the genealogical community.  The data might be the names and dates of people buried in a particular cemetery or it might be information on each of the 25 million passengers who arrived at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924.  In either case, collecting the data was just the first step.  Next you need to know how to design search forms and implement search engines that make the data accessible from the web.


This all sounds rather technical, and it is.  But this One-Step tool automates the process by allowing you to describe your data.  It then generates all the code for you, which you can put directly on the web.  Of course it requires that you already have disk space on a server on the web and that you know how to upload files to it.


Here’s an example of the end product.  You have the database, and the One-Step tool generates the search form that a user would fill out and the search engine that the search form submits the search values to.  The user never sees the search engine but he does see the results that the search engine generates.  For all he knows, the search engine could very well be of the internal combustion type as shown in the diagram below.



As an alternate to putting it on the web, you could put your database and the generated search application on a CD that you can then distribute.



13. Publications


This section contains a list of articles and books that I have published.  Most deal with genealogy, but a few deal with my other love – computers and the 8086 microprocessor.



14. Awards


This section describes several awards that were bestowed upon the One-Step website.



15. Biographies and Interviews


Now that you’ve read all about the One-Step website, you might want to know a bit more about the person behind it all.  In this sections are several articles written about me.



16. Miscellaneous


Under miscellaneous are other One-Step tools that don’t fit into any of the above categories.  The most popular one is a tool for submitting a bid on e-bay just seconds before the auction closes.  This avoids “auction fever” and optimizes your chance for obtaining the item at the lowest possible price.  Another tool allows you to access your collection of bookmarks (or favorites) from any browser and from any computer.





The only thing left for me to tell you is how to get to the One-Step website so you can start doing your research.  But before I do, let me tell you how not to get to the website.  You don’t get there by typing stevemorse.com into your browser’s address or location field.  Because if you did, you would see a motorcycle-riding guitarist claiming to be Steve Morse and proclaiming that you have reached the “official Steve Morse website”.  That is not my official website!  That is not me!  That man is an imposter!


The correct way to get to my “official” One-Step website is to type stevemorse.org into your browser’s location field.  Remember, that’s dot-org and not dot-com.  One little word – one big difference.




And good luck finding your grandfather once you get there.