Online Memorial to the Jews Deported from France
The online version of the Memorial of the Deportation of the Jews of France consists of a free, bilingual website (French/English), with an interactive search engine.
In the first edition of the Memorial to the Jews Deported from France (1978, english edition 1983), Serge Klarsfeld compiled the list of 76,000 Jews, men, women and children, deported from France, who were executed or died in the internment camps of France under the Nazi occupation and the Vichy regime. The history of each convoy precedes the nominal list of the deportees who compose it. Vladimir Jankélévitch welcomed this publication with these words:
"The Memorial of Serge Klarsfeld, perpetuating the memory of 75,000 Jewish deportees in France, is first of all due to the enormity of the work it represents and the ruthless, methodical, meticulous rigor that presided over its elaboration. (...) One can not conceive of a more atrocious and diabolical machinery dismantled in a more sober work. (...) The Memorial of Serge Klarsfeld brings out the night and the cloud by calling them by their name, the innumerable anonymous ghosts annihilated by their executioners. To name these pale shadows is to summon them to the light of day." (Le Nouvel Observateur, May 22, 1978)
After 40 years of research and a series of intermediate versions, Serge Klarsfeld published the third edition of the Memorial to the Jews Deported from France (2012) in memory of the 76,000 deportees, the 3,000 dead in the camps in France and the thousand Jews executed during the Second World War. Many corrections have been made since the original 1978 version. This alphabetical version provides additional information for each victim, including the maiden name, the last address in France and the transit or internment camp.
here the translation of Serge Klarsfeld's original introduction to the 2012 Memorial.
The major goals of the online Memorial are as follows:
- post online Serge Klarsfeld's lifetime achievement - the Memorial to the Jews Deported from France - as an interactive tool which allows to search individuals by surname, by given name, by maiden name, by date or place of birth, by last known address, by convoy, etc, or by any combination of these criteria. Here are several search examples:
- find the persons born in Greece, who lived in Marseille and were deported in 1943.
- search for the persons born in Frankfurt am Main and inmates in the Gurs internment camp.
- find the persons deported by convoy 51 whose last address was in Corrèze.
- find the children under age 7 who lived in the 11th arrondissement of Paris and whose given name starts with a 'J'.
- allow for a phonetic search of surnames, given names, maiden names or localities, in order to find persons recorded under a slightly distinct spelling.
- extend Klarsfeld Memorial by identifying as precisely as possible the birthplaces listed in the 2012 book, and report their current names together with the country and region they are found in.
The database of the online Memorial is built from the 2012 edition of the Memorial; it also includes corrections made by Serge Klarsfeld since 2012. From there, I started editing.
I first did a systematic review of the data. The massive use of computer techniques has made it possible to detect and correct a small number of errors or inaccuracies and to standardize the results. For example, adding the year of birth to the age of the person at the time of their deportation, we should normally obtain a value between 1941 and 1945. Otherwise, there is a contradiction that must be resolved. I also corrected the minor errors that had crept into the addresses in France, street names, departments, birth dates, etc. I updated the names of the streets (when it was possible), the names of the communes of France and the departments.
Then I tried to specify the place of birth of the victims. The versions of the 1978 and 2012 Memorial generally provide the date and place of birth of each person, but without any other details. One of this version's objectives is to identify these places of birth, giving the current name of each locality, as well as the country and the department (in France) or the administrative region (outside France) where it is currently located.
This task is tricky for the following reasons:
In many cases, an investigation has been conducted to accurately determine the place of birth. This investigation, based on a series of [geographical, linguistic, administrative and logical] indicators, and correlated with complementary [memorial, onomastic and genealogical] sources led to the identification of places of birth. So we extended the original repository with direct references to these other data sources.
The lists of convoys and other sources used to develop the 1978 and 2012 Memorials are sometimes in a bad conditions that makes them difficult to decipher.
The spelling of places of birth as found in these lists is often approximate or even fanciful, especially with respect to foreign names.
The transcription in French of the names of these localities has removed the diacritic accents and introduced new approximations.
Localities have often changed their names throughout history and moved from sovereignty to sovereignty through political and administrative changes. For example, the Lemberg of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, has
become Lwów, Poland in 1918 then Львов (Lvov), Soviet Union in 1945 and now Львів (Lviv or L'viv), Ukraine since 1991. The redistribution of borders at the end of the Second World War and following the partitions of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia contributed significantly to these changes of name and language. In the same way, municipalities have changed their name or disappeared, being absorbed by other agglomerations.
The places of birth provided by the deportees often reflect the name of the locality at the time of their birth, and the same city was often referenced by its various names. It is possible that the information provided by some deportees on their date and place of birth is deliberately incorrect or simply approximate (for example respond "born in Paris" instead of "born in Vincennes", where Vincennes is a suburb of Paris). The Vichy authorities and the German occupation authorities also used the French names of localities (such as Varsovie for Warszawa, Poland or Brousse for Bursa, Turkey) or their German name (such as Petrikau for Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland) ...
- Distinct localities often share the same name, and are sometimes spread among in different countries.
We added references to the online lists of persons posthumously declared as "died in deportation" by the Office National des Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre (National Office for Veterans and Victims of War) administration. These lists, published by the Official Journal of the French Republic, provide details not in Klarsfeld Memorial, but they often contradict it : different spellings of first and last names, multiple first names, date, place and country of birth, maiden name, ... Unfortunately, these lists introduce many errors: notably, foreign names and places of birth abroad are severely distorted. This is why it was necessary either to "reinterpret" this information or to ignore it. I leave it to the reader to check them.
The database has also been enriched with links to other online sources, such as the Memorial of the Victims of Persecutions against Jews by the Nazi regime in Germany (Gedenkbuch), the Documentation Center for Resistance in Austria (Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes), the website of the Mémorial de la Shoah in Paris, the Pages of Testimony pages at Yad VaShem or the Jewish genealogy sites.
To unmistakably identify the uncertain birthplaces of people born in France (mainly in Alsace/Lorraine), we consulted the departmental archives online to find the trace of their birth in the civil records and decennial tables. In these cases too, links to the websites of the Departmental Archives were added.
The critical comparison of these different data has made it possible to precisely identify the many birthplaces of the deportees, which until then have remained indecipherable. For 93% of deportees, there is now a precise estimate of their place of birth. For the remaining 7% were born in 3,900 locality names are still not identified (out of 15,000 distinct place names in the 2012 Memorial) but they account for 2% of the persons. In a few hundred cases, this study also made it possible to propose additions and corrections of errors in the surnames, first names and maiden names of the persons named in the Memorial.
By giving everyone the name of the city or village of their birth, this tool hopefully helps to enrich and clarify a little more the identity of the victims and their journey. For genealogists, this is the key to any search for ancestors upstream and other branches of the family.
This study shed new light on the distribution of deportees according to their place of birth. It is striking to find out the extreme diversity of this population born among 6,400 towns and villages across 74 countries (in 2019 borders), mostly in now vanished Jewish communities in Europe and around the Mediterranean basin. The distribution of the birth places can be seen here.
However, we did not systematically correct the first and last names when the differences are minor and they do not affect the phonetic search or when translating to French: for example, an entry for a person named Maurice Loeb in the 2012 Memorial and Moritz Löb in the Gedenkbuch may remain unchanged.
When the information from the various sources diverges totally, we left the information of each source. The birth dates in different sources often differ by a year or two, perhaps reflecting the strategy of the persecuted Jews to declare themselves younger or older, depending on the case, to increase their chances of survival.
The 1978 version of the Memorial specifies the nationality of a large number of the deportees until June 1943 and indicates who were the known survivors in 1945. These data being excluded from the 2012 version, they are currently only partial and we will complete them in the future.
According to the practices used in genealogy, this tool uses the current names of each locality, as they are used locally, including their accents, cedillas and other diacritics (e.g. Łódź, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chişinău, Bucureşti). However, we have indicated the ancient names of these localities when they appeared on the sources (e.g. Stanisławów for Ivano-Frankivsk in Ukraine, Kishinev for Chişinău in Moldova). For non-Latin alphabets (i.e. Greek, Arabic, Russian, Belarussian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian, Hebrew), we use the transliteration of these places to the Latin alphabet as found on the English versions of Google Maps or Wikipedia (e.g. Thessaloniki for Θεσσαλονίκη). Country names are in English (e.g. Hungary, Germany). The names of the provinces and administrative subdivisions of each country are usually in the local language with accents and diacritics signs: for example, the Rhine-Palatinate land in Germany is indicated as Rheinland-Pfalz, the French departments are noted with their accents (e.g. Ariège, not Ariege), the Holy Cross Province (voivodeship) in Poland is noted Świętokrzyskie.
Despite the utmost attention given to this study, some choices may prove to be wrong, some errors may have occurred. I am the one and only responsible for them. Contact me
here for any additions or corrections.
How to search the database?
To search the database, go to the search form here, fill in the fields, then click the Search button. You may type in with uppercase or lowercase characters, with accents and diacritics signs or ignore them all, i.e. typing LEVY or Lévy will yield the same results. If there is no answer, broaden your search criteria and try again. When one or more people match your selection, a table is presented in another window of your browser, with one person per row. To get all the details about a person, click the link on the last name of the person (first column on the left). These details are brought in a separate window, from which you can access the links to the different sites (French Journal Officiel lists, Gedenkbuch, civil records, etc.).
To carry out a new search, return to the form you started from. Do not forget to clear previously filled fields or press the Clear button.
The search engine uses the Daitch-Mokotoff soundex (DM soundex) and the Beider-Morse Phonetic Matching (BMPM) techniques, which allow you to find a person, even when the names, first names and localities are spelled differently from the database. It is also possible to search by filter including convoy, place or date of birth, by last address, etc. By default, the search of surnames uses the BMPM technique, the search on maiden names and birthplaces uses the D-M soundex and the search on given names uses exact spelling. Choose the 'sounds like' and 'is phonetically' options (which respectively use the DM soundex and the BMPM phonetic matching, to locate the spelling variants of the names, given name, localities or regions.
Description of the database content
The information on each individual person may contain the following details:
- Surname: When one name is listed, it is the surname from the 2012 Memorial. When two names are listed, separated by a vertical bar '|' (e.g. KOLCZEWAKS | KOLGEWAKS), the second surname is either a false identity alias, a suggested correction to the first surname or the spouse name for surviving women who married after the war.
- Given name(s): Klarsfeld 2012 Memorial indicates a single given name only. Multiple given names can be found on other sources such as the Journal Officiel lists (see below).
- Maiden name: This field may occasionally hold the surname of a divorcee spouse, as mentioned in a note.
- Age: at deportation or death time.
- Date of birth is in the format DD-MMM-YYYY, e.g. 08-Aug-1915 means August 8, 1915.
- Place of birth: The full place of birth includes the current name of the locality, its region and country, according to 2018 international borders. The reported region is the current administrative division the birthplace is located in: we used here the départment in France, land in Germany, voivoidship in Poland, county in Romania/Moldavia/Hungary/Lithuania, oblast in Ukraine, oblast or republic in Russia, region in Belarus/Morocco, state in Austria, province in Algeria, governorate in Tunisia, region (kraj) in Czech Republic/Slovakia, canton in Switzerland, etc.
- Place of birth former/other/nearby name: This field may either indicate a former or alternate name, a nearby town, a hamlet near the locality or a quarter of the town that was indicated as birthplace.
- Place of birth in Klarsfeld 2012 Memorial: this place is always reported.
- Place of birth in Journal Officiel: This place is presented only when it is significantly differs from the one in Klarsfed 2012 Memorial. It comes with the country name at birth time.
- Journal Officiel Announcement: This hyperlink refers to the first page of the official decree of the French Ministry of Defense and published online in the Journal Officiel de la République Française, stating that the person "died in deportation". These lists are established par the National Office for Veterans and Victims of War (Office National des Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre, in short ONACVG).
Caveat: On recent decrees, you may perform a text search with Ctrl-F; on older decrees with scanned pictures, there is no text search, so just review the images. Please note that a decree is usually composed of several pages and several successive lists, each of them been sorted alphabetically. So, if you do not see the name you search, keep on browsing down or move the next page(s) using the "Page Suivante" (i.e. "Next Page") button.
- Other sources: References to other sources that were helpful to identify where the person was born: the German Gedenkbuch, the french civil records online, Yad Vashem Pages of Testimony, etc.
- Citizen: The country of citizenship of the deportee at war time, as reported in Klarsfeld 1978 Memorial for the convoys until March 1943 (partial).
- Address: Complete last known address in France.
Street: Partial street address. Examples: "25 Rue de la République", "Avenue Gambetta", "Emile Zola", "Pasteur".
Town: The name of the french commune as of today, e.g. Lunéville.
Department: the French département's name as of 2018, e.g. Gironde, Val-de-Marne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques; it may differ from the départment name at war time that is listed in Klarsfeld 2012 Memorial.
- Internment/Transit Camp:, one internment or transit camp in France or in Italy that the person went through, e.g. Noé, Drancy.
- Convoy or List Number: We reuse here the numeration used by Klarsfeld in the 2012 Memorial.
- Convoys 1 to 79: 74 convoys, numbered 1 to 79 (skipped numbers: 41, 43, 54, 56, 65) including only Jews, from March 1942 to August 1944.
- List 80: This list is made of 4 sub-lists:
- List 80A: 73 spouses of prisoners + children deported on May 2, 1944 from Drancy to Bergen-Belsen.
- List 80B: 73 spouses of prisoners + children deported on May 3, 1944 from Drancy to Bergen-Belsen.
- List 80C: 49 spouses of prisoners + children deported on July 21, 1944 from Drancy to Bergen-Belsen.
- List 80D: 63 spouses of prisoners + children deported on July 23, 1944 from Drancy to Bergen-Belsen.
- List 81: 180 Jews, deported on July 30, 1944 from Noé to Toulouse then to Buchenwald and Ravensbrück.
- List 82: 29 Jews, deported on August 20, 1944 from Clermont-Ferrand to Dachau.
- List 83: Jews deported in convoys of political repression (as opposed to the convoys of deportation for racial persecution). Among these convoys, are notably:
- List 83a: Jews deported in convoy of political opponents I.42 also known as “convoi des 45000” from Compiègne to Auschwitz. 45000 is a reference to their inmate numbers.
- List 83b: Jews in convoy I.74 “31000” including among others communist women, deported on January 24, 1943 from Compiègne to Auschwitz. 31000 is a reference to their inmate numbers.
- List 84: 646 Jews from the Nord and Pas-de-Calais french départements arrested in Northern France, transferred to Malines (Mechelen), Belgium, to be sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau by the deportation convoys of the Jews from Belgium. Many of them were arrested in France on September 11, 1942, transfered from Lille to Brussels then deported by convoy X to Auschwitz-Birkenau on September 15, 1942. Others were deported in other convoys from Malines (Mechelen) to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
- List 85: 31 Jews deported individually.
- List 90: 2,000 Jews died in internment or transit camps in France (Gurs, Récébédou, Noé, Drancy, Rivesaltes, Compiègne, Lannemezan, Le Vernet, Nexon, etc).
- List 91: 1,217 Jews shot or executed summarily in France.
- List 641: List of 584 'half-Jews' or 'spouses of Aryans' deported from Drancy to Alderney (Aurigny in french), the northernmost of the Channel Islands. This list is an addition to Serge Klarsfeld's 2012 Memorial. It originates from the Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Déportation.
For more details, see Klarsfeld 2012 introduction
- Date of convoy departure: according to DD-MMM-YYYY format. For example Jul-1942 will filter the persons deported in July 1942.
- Convoy origin: The place the convoy started from. One among these places: Angers, Beaune-la-Rolande, Cherbourg, Clermont-Ferrand, Compiègne, Drancy, Drancy/Compiègne, Lille, Lyon, Malines/Mechelen (Belgique), Noé/Toulouse, Paris, Pithiviers, Toulouse.
- Convoy destination: One or more concentration or extermination camps this convoy was sent to: Aurigny (Alderney), Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Buchenwald/Ravensbrück, Dachau, Kaunas/Tallinn, Malines/Auschwitz-Birkenau, Mauthausen, Natzweiler, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Ravensbrück/Buchenwald, Sarrebrücken - Neue Bremm, Sobibor, Sobibor/Majdanek.
Some convoys to Auschwitz-Birkenau stopped at Kosel in Upper Silesia (today Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Opole Voivodeship, Poland), where some men were selected for work in the Blechhammer camp. There is usually no information available to determine who got off the train at Kosel and who continued to Auschwitz-Birkenau. We indicate which convoys stopped in Kosel.
- Prisoner number at Auschwitz-Birkenau: For those whose prisoner number is unknown, we indicate simply 'yes' (partial list). Deportees who were gassed upon arrival did not receive any prisoner number.
- Survivor/Escapee: According to the latest research, there were around 3,953 known survivors in 1945 ("Mémorial des 3 943 rescapés Juifs de France", Doulut, Klarsfeld et Labeau, 2018). We follow their classification, indicating those among the survivors who escaped from the trains before the arrival to the camps.
- Date of death: for persons whose death was recorded in the concentration/extermination camps or when they were shot or died in internment/transit camps in France. When unknown, we do not follow the ONACVG convention published in the Journal Officiel which sets arbitrarily the date of death as five days following the convoy left France. For survivors, we sometimes indicate their date of death after the war. (Partial)
- Place of death: when known.
- Profession: This is the profession recorded in french in various deportation lists. Completion and translation to english is ongoing.
- Photo: Pages and pictures from the French Children of the Holocaust Memorials (Mémorial des Enfants) books, published by Serge Klarsfeld in 1996 and 2016.
- Notes: These notes usually indicate the resources used to identify the birthplace of the individuals. The most blatant contradictions detected between the various sources are also presented here.
- Id: an internal identifier for this database. Include this number in your correspondance with me.
- Google Maps
- Wikipedia in English, French, German, Polish, and all the european languages.
- U.S. Board on Geographic Names
- Gary Mokotoff and Sallyann Amdur Sack with Alexander Sharon, Where Once We Walked: Revised Edition, Avotaynu, Teaneck, NJ, 2002.
- JewishGen Community Database
- JewishGen Gazetteer
Paris street names, including former street names.
- Judaism of Alsace and Lorraine.
Linguistic and onomastic tools
- Daitch-Mokotoff soundex
- Beider-Morse Phonetic Matching
- Beider, Alexander, A Dictionary of Jewish From the Russian Empire: Revised Edition (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, 2008)
- Beider, Alexander, A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Kingdom of Poland (Teaneck, NJ: Avotaynu, 1996)
- Beider, Alexander, A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from Galicia (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, 2004)
- Beider, Alexander, A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from Maghreb, Gibraltar, and Malta (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, 2017)
- Menk, Lars, A Dictionary of German Jewish Surnames (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, 2005)
- Steve Morse Jewish References
Memory Resources and Sites
- Serge Klarsfeld, Le Mémorial de la Déportation des Juifs de France (Klarsfeld, Paris, 1978)
- Serge Klarsfeld, Le Mémorial de la Déportation des Juifs de France (Fils et Filles des Déportés Juifs de France, Paris, 2012)
- Alexandre Doulut, Serge Klarsfeld, Sandrine Labeau, Les rescapés juifs d'Auschwitz témoignent (Fils et Filles des Déportés Juifs de France/Après l'oubli, Paris, 2005)
- Alexandre Doulut, Serge Klarsfeld, Sandrine Labeau, Mémorial des 3943 rescapés juifs de France (Beate Klarsfeld Foundation/Fils et Filles des Déportés Juifs de France/Après l'oubli, Paris, 2018)
- Serge Klarsfeld, French children of the Holocaust, a Memorial (New York University Press, New York, 1996)
- Serge Klarsfeld, French children of the Holocaust, a Memorial, Volume 2 (Fils et Filles des Déportés Juifs de France, Paris, 2016)
- Le Mémorial de la Shoah, Paris
- Le Livre Mémorial de la déportation en France, Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Déportation. This repository lists the convoys and persons deported from France for persecution reasons (political opponents, resistants, civil hostages) and not for persecution reasons.
- Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial And Museum, a partial list of deportees, prisoners in Auschwitz-Birkenau who where not gassed immediately upon arrival.
- Victims of the Persecution of Jews under the National Socialist Tyranny in Germany, Gedenkbuch
- Yad VaShem, Jerusalem
- US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC
- The mentions 'death in deportation' published in the French Official Journal
- Cartography of Deported Children in Paris and France
- Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, Austrian Victims of the Holocaust
- Czech Victims of the Holocaust
- Dutch Victims of the Holocaust
- Centro di Documentazione Ebraica Contemporanea, Shoah Victims in Italy
- Caserne Dossin: Memorial, Museum and Documentation Center on the Holocaust and Human Rights, Malines/Mechelen, Belgium
- Le Maitron, a biographical dictionary of all those who were shot, executed or massacred in France, 1940-1944.
- JewishGen Holocaust
- Le Mémorial des déportés Judéo-Espagnols de France, Association Muestros Dezaparesidos, Paris 2019. This memorial book focus on the fate of the Jews originating from the Balkans, Greece and Turkey who were deported from France.
- Convoy 6 web site in memory of the victims of convoy 6 (left Pithiviers camp on July 17, 1942 for Auschwitz-Birkenau) and more globally, in memory of all the deportees who left the Loiret camps - Pithiviers and Beaune la Rolande - by convoys 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 35.
- Convoy 73 web site in memory of the deportees of convoi 73 (left Drancy camp on Mai 15, 1944 towards the Baltic states).
- Convoy 77 web site in memory of the deportees of convoi 77 (left Drancy camp on July 31, 1944 for Auschwitz-Birkenau)
- Anonymes, Justes et Persécutés durant la période Nazie dans les communes de France, a website about Jews and persecuted populations during the Nazi era thorough all localities of France.
- Les déportés juifs de la Sarthe, a website to the memory of the persecuted Jews born or resident in the Sarthe department, in western France.
- Association de Recherche et d’Etudes Historiques sur la Shoah en Val de Loire, a website to the memory of the persecuted Jews from the Indre-et_Loire department, around Tours.
- Déportés politiques à Auschwitz, le convoi du 6 juillet 1942 dit des "45000", a website to the memory of the deportees from July 6, 1942 convoy I.42 from Compiègne to Auschwitz-Birkenau, also known as the Convoy of the 45000 in reference to their inmate numbers. In this convoy some 50 Jews joined hundred of persons, political deportees for repression reason.
Metrical books and genealogy
First and foremost, I am truly grateful to Serge and Beate Klarsfeld for the immediate trust they gave me. As soon as I presented the project, they supported it and encouraged me. They shared the digital data of the 2012 Memorial and authorized to make the data and the 2012 introduction public on the Internet. I hope I did not distort their life-time achievement in this version.
I am particularly indebted to Steve Morse for his logistical support around the One-Step tool, and for hosting the search engine on his website. Without the One-Step tool available, I would probably not have started this project.
I submitted a few questions and working assumptions to Alexander Beider, who kindly replied with his encyclopedic knowledge.
I thank Eve Line Blum-Cherchevsky (z'l) and Georges Mayer who both helped me to resolve questions about the deportees of convoys 73 and 77 respectively. Eve Line, stressing the importance of officially declaring victims as "died in deportation" by the French Ministry of Defense (War Veterans Affairs), enlightened me as to what could be expected from the lists published in the Journal Officiel.
The German Federal Archives (BundesArchiv in Berlin) were kind enough to share their information on the German Jews who were in France during the war.
My friends Jacqueline Weisz, a member of the Sons and Daugthers of the Jewish deportees from France association and Philippe Boukara, historian at the Mémorial de la Shoah in Paris, provided me with useful advices and feedback on this project.
Finally, I wish to thank my spouse Isabelle, who supported me by her smart remarks and infinite patience.
July 2018, last database update February 1st, 2020.